BITSAT 2013 will be conducted from 14th May to 1st June 2013. Here is the syllabus for Chemistry.
BITSAT examination is based on the NCERT syllabus for class 12th and 11th. Students need to revise Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and English. Here is the detailed syllabus for Chemistry.
States of Matter
- Measurement: Physical quantities and SI units, Dimensional analysis, Precision, Significant figures.
- Chemical reactions: Laws of chemical combination, Dalton's atomic theory; Mole concept; Atomic, molecular and molar masses; Percentage composition & molecular formula; Balanced chemical equations & stoichiometry
- Gaseous state: Kinetic theory - Maxwell distribution of velocities, Average, root mean square and most probable velocities and relation to temperature, Diffusion; Deviation from ideal behaviour - Critical temperature, Liquefaction of gases, van der Waals equation.
- Liquid state: Vapour pressure, surface tension, viscosity.
- Solid state: Classification; Space lattices & crystal systems; Unit cell - Cubic & hexagonal systems; Close packing; Crystal structures: Simple AB and AB2 type ionic crystals, covalent crystals - diamond & graphite, metals. Imperfections- Point defects, non-stoichiometric crystals; Electrical, magnetic and dielectric properties; Amorphous solids - qualitative description.
- Introduction: Subatomic particles; Rutherford's picture of atom; Hydrogen atom spectrum and Bohr model.
- Quantum mechanics: Wave-particle duality - de Broglie relation, Uncertainty principle; Hydrogen atom: Quantum numbers and wavefunctions, atomic orbitals and their shapes (s, p, and d), Spin quantum number.
- Many electron atoms: Pauli exclusion principle; Aufbau principle and the electronic configuration of atoms, Hund's rule.
- Periodicity: Periodic law and the modern periodic table; Types of elements: s, p, d, and f blocks; Periodic trends: ionization energy, atomic and ionic radii, electron affinity, and valency.
- Nucleus: Natural and artificial radioactivity; Nuclear reactions, Artificial transmutation ofelements.
Chemical Bonding & Molecular Structure
- Ionic Bond: Lattice Energy and Born-Haber cycle
- Molecular Structure: Lewis picture & resonance structures, VSEPR model & molecular shapes
- Covalent Bond: Valence Bond Theory- Orbital overlap, Directionality of bonds & hybridistaion (s & p orbitals only), Resonance; Molecular orbital theory- Methodology, Orbital energy level diagram, Bond order, Magnetic properties for homonuclear diatomic species.
- Metallic Bond: Qualitative description.
- Intermolecular Forces: Polarity; Dipole moments; Hydrogen Bond.
- Basic Concepts: Systems and surroundings; State functions; Intensive & Extensive Properties; Zeroth Law and Temperature
- First Law of Thermodynamics: Work, internal energy, heat, enthalpy, heat capacities; Enthalpies of formation, phase transformation, ionization, electron gain; Thermochemistry; Hess's Law.
- Second and Third Laws: Spontaneous and reversible processes; entropy; Gibbs free energy related to spontaneity and non-mechanical work; Standard free energies of formation, free energy change and chemical equilibrium; Third Law and Absolute Entropies.
Physical and Chemical Equilibria
- Concentration Units: Mole Fraction, Molarity, and Molality
- Solutions: Solubility of solids and gases in liquids, Vapour Pressure, Raoult's law, Relative lowering of vapour pressure, depression in freezing point; elevation in boiling point; osmotic pressure, determination of molecular mass.
- Physical Equilibrium: Equilibria involving physical changes (solid-liquid, liquid-gas, solid-gas), Adsorption, Physical and Chemical adsorption, Langmuir Isotherm.
- Chemical Equilibria: Equilibrium constants (KP, KC), Le-Chatelier's principle.
- Ionic Equilibria: Strong and Weak electrolytes, Acids and Bases (Arrhenius, Lewis, Lowry and Bronsted) and their dissociation; Ionization of Water; pH; Buffer solutions; Acid-base titrations; Hydrolysis; Solubility Product of Sparingly Soluble Salts; Common Ion Effect.
- Factors Affecting Equilibria: Concentration, Temperature, Pressure, Catalysts, Significance of DG and DG0 in Chemical Equilibria.
- Redox Reactions: Oxidation-reduction reactions (electron transfer concept); Oxidation number; Balancing of redox reactions; Electrochemical cells and cell reactions; Electrode potentials; EMF of Galvanic cells; Nernst equation; Gibbs energy change and cell potential; Concentration cells; Secondary cells; Fuel cells; Corrosion and its prevention.
- Electrolytic Conduction: Electrolytic Conductance; Specific, equivalent and molar conductivities; Kolhrausch's Law and its application, Faraday's laws of electrolysis; Electrode potential and electrolysis, Commercial production of the chemicals, NaOH, Na, Al, C12, & F2
- Aspects of Kinetics: Rate and Rate expression of a reaction; Rate constant; Order of reaction; Integrated rate expressions for zero and first order reactions; Half-life; Determination of rate constant and order of reaction
- Factor Affecting the Rate of the Reactions: Temperature dependence of rate constant; Activation energy; Catalysis, Surface catalysis, enzymes, zeolites; Factors affecting rate of collisions between molecules; Effect of light.
- Mechanism of Reaction: Elementary reactions; Complex reactions; Reactions involving two/three steps only; Photochemical reactions; Concept of fast reactions.
- Radioactive isotopes: Half-life period; Radiochemical dating.
Hydrogen and s-block elements
- Hydrogen: Element: unique position in periodic table, occurrence, isotopes; Dihydrogen: preparation, properties, reactions, and uses; Molecular, saline, interstitial hydrides; Water: Properties; Structure and aggregation of water molecules; Hard and soft water; Heavy water; Hydrogen peroxide.
- s-block elements: Abundance and occurrence; Anomalous properties of the first elements in each group; diagonal relationships.
- Alkali metals: Lithium, sodium and potassium: occurrence, extraction, reactivity, and electrode potentials; Reactions with oxygen, hydrogen, halogens and liquid ammonia; Basic nature of oxides and hydroxides; Halides; Properties and uses of compounds such as NaCl, Na2CO3, NaHCO3, NaOH, KCl, and KOH.
- Alkaline earth metals: Magnesium and calcium: Occurrence, extraction, reactivity and electrode potentials; Reactions with non-metals; Solubility and thermal stability of oxo salts; Properties and uses of important compounds such as CaO, Ca(OH)2, plaster of Paris, MgSO4, MgCl2, CaCO3, and CaSO4; Lime and limestone, cement.
*p- d- and f-block elements
- General: Abundance, distribution, physical and chemical properties, isolation and uses of elements; Trends in chemical reactivity of elements of a group; Extraction and refining of metals.
- Group 13 elements: Boron; Properties and uses of borax, boric acid, boron hydrides & halides. Reaction of aluminum with acids and alkalis;
- Group 14 elements: Carbon: Uses, Allotropes (graphite, diamond, fullerenes), oxides, halides and sulphides, carbides; Silicon: Silica, silicates, silicones; Tin and lead: Extraction, halides and oxides.