Different Fields of Engineering

Nitin Rao updated on : 04 Jan 2017

Get information about different fields of engineering such as Mechanical, Civil, Electronics, Computer and Genetic, Aeronautical Engineering etc.

Engineering has always been a popular and one of the most sought after career options. With several areas of specialisation, engineers have always been in great demand. With booming commercialization and global economy, the demand will be much higher in the coming years, both in India & abroad.

Let’s take a look at the different fields of engineering:

Mechanical Engineering

mechanical engineering

This highly popular stream of engineering is related to production and design of tools, machines, parts and other mechanical equipment and machinery. Mechanical engineers are associated with the design, development, construction, production, installation, operation and maintenance of machines and equipment needed in different industries.

The job of mechanical engineers is extremely challenging as they are required to produce new tools as per requirement of the industry. When designing and making a commercial product they have to take into account all the business and marketing aspects to make sure that the product is as per the requirement and yet affordable. Within this stream, there can be further specialisations like thermal engineering, design, and production engineering etc.

Mechanical engineering finds applications in all fields of technology. Mechanical Engineers could work in many industries including private or public sector industries of various types, and their work varies by industry and function.

Civil Engineering

Civil Engineering

Civil Engineering offers a dynamic career in the field of planning and designing of cities and towns. Civil engineering involves planning, designing and executing structural works particularly public works like roads, bridges, tunnels, buildings, airports, dams, water works, sewage systems, ports, etc.

As the pace of urbanisation is increasing, there has been a spurt in improving the infrastructure in big and small cities, resulting in large scale demand of civil engineers. It is desired that a civil engineer should have not only a high standard of engineering knowledge but also supervisory and administrative skills, as their job involves dealing with clients, architects, government officials, contractors and the supervision of work according to standards.

There can be further specialisations in the field of civil engineering including water resources, environmental, construction, transportation, geotechnical engineering, etc. A bachelor's degree in Engineering is the minimum requirement to become a qualified civil engineer.

Electronics Engineering

electrical engineering

Electrical Engineering is one of the most diverse fields in engineering. It is interlinked with other areas including telecommunication, electronics, power, signal processing, computers etc. It is a constantly changing and widening branch of the engineering profession. From household electrical goods to giant transformers, and power machines, electrical engineering is associated with everything. There is a great demand for electrical engineers as they are required by the industries manufacturing all the household and office appliances like refrigerators, televisions, computer, microwaves, etc. They also find good opportunities in atomic power plants, hydroelectric power plants as well as thermal power plants.

There are several areas of specialisation in this field including sub-streams like Electro-Magnetism, Communication Systems, Instrumentation, Control Systems, Microelectronics, Signal Processing, etc.

Computer Engineering

Computer Engineering

Computer engineers are in much demand today throughout the globe. With the spread of IT in almost every sector be it industries, healthcare, administration, there is growing demand for new products and services. As a result, there exists a huge demand for computer engineering professionals for the development of faster hardware components, new communication systems and software.

Within this field, those who deal with the computer equipment as such, are termed as computer hardware engineers and those who deal with the computer programs are called computer software engineers. Software engineers are concerned with the design and development of software, including computer games, word processing and business applications, operating systems and network distribution and compilers, which convert programs to machine language for execution on a computer.

While hardware engineers are involved in the research, designing, testing, manufacturing and installation of computer hardware such as computer chips, circuit boards, computer systems and related equipment. It is desired that students who wish to pursue a career in computer science and engineering need a strong foundation in both mathematics and science, particularly chemistry and physics.


Genetic Engineering

Genetic Engineering

It is an upcoming stream and has a lot of potential for growth in the near future. A part of Biotechnology, it is related with working on the genetic material of an organism. Genetic engineers study the genetic properties of an organism and how traits and characteristics are transmitted through the generations, and how genetic disorders are caused. Their research involves researching the causes and discovering potential cures if any and thus aspirants of this field have a great scope in the healthcare industry.

There are specialised research activities going on related to plants, animals and human beings. Genetic engineering in plants and animals can play a big role to improve certain natural characteristics of value, to increase resistance to disease or damage and to develop new characteristics etc.

Aeronautical Engineering

Aeronautical Engineering

This popular and glamorous field deals with the development of new technology in the field of aviation, space exploration and defence systems. The job profile of aeronautical engineers is to be involved in the designing, construction, development, testing, operation and maintenance of both commercial and military aircraft, spacecraft and their components as well as satellites and missiles.

There can be further specialisations in areas like structural design, navigational guidance and control systems, instrumentation and communication or production methods or it can be in a particular product such as military aircraft, passenger planes, helicopters, satellites, rockets, etc.

Aeronautical engineers are in good demand in airlines, aircraft manufacturing units, air turbine production plants or design development programmes for the aviation industry, etc.

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