Syllabus for DMLT Course
DMLT Course is spread over two years. Following are subjects that are taught when one pursue Diploma in Medical Laboratory Technology.
In Anatomy, students of DMLT Course are first given the introduction about the subject and later are taught about an anatomical position, common planes and Anatomical terms.
- Branches of Anatomy
- Histology that includes animal cell structure and function along with the classification and function of tissues
- Skeletal System that comprises of axial and appendicular bones, joints and movements
- Studying skin, fascia and muscles and tendons
- Circulatory System that includes heart, blood vessels, lymphatic and RE system
- Respiratory System that deals with nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi lungs and pleura
- Digestive System that includes alimentary canal, liver, gall bladder, pancreases peritoneum.
- Urogenital System includes different parts of urinary system and different parts of male and female genital system
- Senses and general sensibilities like eye and vision, ears and hearing, taste and factory sensations and sensibilities like touch, pain
- Central and peripheral nervous system including the study of brain and spinal cord, cranial and spinal nervous
- Regional Anatomy includes head and neck, thorax, abdomen and pelvis, important blood vessels, and important muscles for injection
This subject taught in DMLT Course includes the following topics-
- Composition and general function of blood, and description of blood cells
- Importance of blood group composition and function of lymph
- Respiratory System that involves name of structures involved in respirations and their function - External and internal respiration, including the definition of respiratory rate, tidal volume, vital capacity, and hypoxia
- Excretory System that includes functions of kidney, nephron, glomerulus and tubules, the composition of urine, and function of the skin.
- Digestive System that involves composition and functions of saliva, mastication and deglutition, functions of the stomach, composition of gastric juice, pancreatic juice, bile and digestion of food by different Enzymes, absorption and defecation.
- DMLT Course also teaches about endocrine glands, which includes the function of endocrine gland and the hormone secreted by them.
- Reproductive System involves the study of the organs in both male and female. The function of ovary-formation of ova, actions of the ovarian hormone, menstrual cycle. Functions of testes-spermatogenesis and secretions of testosterone.
-Fertilisation Vasectomy and tubectomy.
SGT University, which offers a two-year program in DMLT Course combines the anatomy and physiology into one subject. Following are some of the extra topics that are taught in the subject anatomy and physiology at SGT University besides the above-
-General Organization of the Nervous System.
-Histology of Neural Tissue.
-Neurone Structure and Classification of Neurones.
-Autonomic Nervous System.
-Major Endocrine Organs.
-Hormones of the glands and their function - Hormones of the anterior pituitary, Hormones of the Posterior Pituitary, Adrenal Glands, Hormones of the Adrenal Medulla, Hormones of the Pancreatic Islets, Hormones of the Thyroid Gland, Parathyroid Glands, Sex hormones.
Students of DMLT Course are also taught about the cardiovascular system which covers the following topics:
-Functions of Heart, Passage of Blood through Heart.
-Cardiac Muscle, Cardiac Pacemaker and Conduction System.
-Functions of the Cardiovascular System, Cardiac Cycle.
-Respiratory System: Organization of Respiratory System.
-Functions of Respiratory Tract.
-Functions of Respiratory System- Pulmonary Ventilation
-Changing Alveolar Volumes, Pulmonary Volumes, Pulmonary Capacities, Minutes of Alveolar -Ventilation.
-Transport of Gases- Physical Principles of Gas Exchange, Respiratory membrane, Oxygen and Carbon dioxide diffusion Gradients, Oxygen Transport, Carbon Dioxide Transport.
Special Senses: Special Senses in DMLT Course includes the following topics
-Functions of Eye - Wall of the Eyeball, Vision, Visual Pathways to the Central Cortex, Refraction, Errors of Refraction and Colour Vision.
-Mechanism of Hearing
-Structure and Function of Ear - External Ear, Middle Ear, Internal Ear, Organ of Corti.
-Receptor of Hearing
-Functions of Skin
-Body Temperature - Regulation of body temperature
- General Pharmacology includes nomenclature of drugs, concept of pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics
- In this subject, students pursuing DMLT Course are taught about drugs prescribed for the diseases of fundamental System like GI system, respiratory system, cardiovascular system, blood coagulation and thrombosis. Drugs affecting the urine and renal functions, excretion of drugs in stool, bile and other body fluids
- Drugs for diseases related with nervous system, autonomic system, endocrine system and autacoids
- Study of chemotherapeutic agents includes anti-viral drugs including AIDs and hepatitis, anti-bacterial drugs, anti-fungal drugs, anti-protozoan drugs and anti-cancer drugs
- Importance of antiseptic and disinfectants
- Drugs interfering in different pathological tests
- Measurement of drug levels in different body fluids and significance
- Study of Entomology that means study of insects like mosquitoes, lice, fleas, flies, rats and rodents and the health hazards associated with them
- Types of water sources and their purification
- Importance of bio-medical waste management
- How important is sanitation in public health
- Importance of different kinds of food and their nutritional values, foodborne diseases
- Statistics taught in DMLT Course includes the following-
- Studying different types of tabulations that include simple tables, frequency distribution tables
- Studying different types of Diagrams like bar diagrams, histogram, line diagram, pie diagram
- Studying Statistical Averages like mean, median, mode
- Studying measures of dispersion like normal curve, range, standard deviation and standard error
- Importance of computers, its history, computer generations, anatomy of computer that includes input and output devices, processing units and outline of data processing, external storage devices, different hardware
- Communication through computer and the internet
- Use of computer in Radio-diagnosis/Pathology Laboratory
- In this subject students of DMLT Course study about history of microbiology, microbes and their classification, morphology of bacteria, motional requirements of bacteria, preparation and uses of culture methods and identification of bacteria
- What are sterilisation and disinfection? Getting to know about physical chemical, mechanical methods, sterilisation of media, syringe, glassware’s etc., safe disposal of contaminated media etc
- Common Laboratory equipment and their uses like different microscope, incubator, BOD incubator, refrigerator, deep freeze, hot air oven, autoclave etc
- Anaerobic culture, inoculation techniques, subculture and maintenance of stock culture
Biochemistry taught in DMLT Course covers the following topics -
- Analytical Balance: In this subject, students are first given an introduction to the subject. Later, they are being taught about the use and maintenance of analytical balance.
-Preparation of Solution Reagents:
a. Standard Solutions - Types and Use of Standard Solutions, Expressing Concentration of Solutions, Preparation of Standard Solutions, Dilution of Solution.
b. Reagents- Formulation.
c. Storage and Safe Use of Chemicals and Reagents - Flammable Chemicals, Corrosive Chemicals, Toxic, Harmful and Irritating Chemicals, Oxidizing Chemicals, Explosive Chemicals, Carcinogens. Strength Normality
Candidates enrolled in DMLT Course learn about collecting and recording of Biological specimens, Separation of Serum and Plasma, Preservation and Disposal of Biological Samples/materials.
Chemistry of Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates, Classification of Carbohydrates, Functions of Carbohydrates, Properties of Carbohydrates, Metabolism of Carbohydrates.
Proteins and Amino acids
Meaning and definition of Proteins and Amino Acids, Classification of Proteins and Amino Acids, Function of Proteins, Properties of Amino Acids.
Chemistry of Lipids
Definition of Lipids, Classification of Lipids, Function of Lipids.
PATHOLOGY AND BLOOD BANKING
Introduction to Clinical Haematology:
Students aspiring to enrol in DMLT Course are taught about instruments and Glassware used in Pathological Laboratories, Cleaning, Disinfection & Sterilization, Preparation of Stains.
The method of Collection of Blood Samples:
Methods of Blood Sample Collection, Anticoagulants used in tests and preservation, Shelf life of Blood
Blood Cells and Platelets:
Normal morphology Count, Blood Count, Platelet Morphology and Platelet Count, Anaemia – Meaning, Types and Classification, Characteristics and their features, Clinical investigation for Anaemia.
In addition to the above, DMLT Course also imparts knowledge to the students about functions of blood, haemostasis, basic haematological techniques and blood indices.
a. Functions of Blood.
b. Haemostasis- characteristic of an organism or a system which maintains its parameters within the normal range of values, failure of which can cause diseases such as hypertension and diabetes.
c. Basic Haematological Techniques: RBC count (Red blood cell count), HB estimation (haemoglobin estimation), WBC count, Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, Reticulocyte count, Determination of bleeding time (BT), clotting time (CT), and prothrombin time (PT).
d. Blood indices
Preparation of Blood Films:
Stains used in Hematology, Preparation of Buffy coat smears.
DMLT Course makes candidates skilled in using laboratory methods in the investigation of anaemia:
RBC morphology and Normal and Abnormal hypochromia, Vitamin B12 and folic acid Schilling test, Serum iron and iron-binding capacity, Screening for sickle cell anaemia.
- Clinical experiences will provide the candidate pursuing DMLT Course with the opportunity to practice what they have learnt in the classroom and help them gain confidence in their ability to perform the following procedures:
b. Blood draws, first aid and wound care
d. ECG administration
e. Handling dialysis equipment
f. Patient care and handling medical records effectively
Advanced Techniques and Future Trends in Laboratory Science
- With increasing digitisation, why it is important to keep on updating and developing professional knowledge in today’s times
- Students of DMLT Course learn how to apply latest techniques and use analytical instruments in medical laboratories
- Assessing the potential, limitations and sources of error of laboratory methods
- Learning how due to increased automation in all laboratory specialities has led to more use of shared instrumentation and cooperation between laboratory specialities
- To validate methods and assure the quality of analyses through constant work with quality assurance and comprehensive control systems
GENERAL LABORATORY AND INSTRUMENT MAINTENANCE
Besides, some universities also teach students studying DMLT Course about precautions to be taken while working in a laboratory and how to maintain all the instruments used in the laboratory.
-Organisation of laboratory and safety precautions in laboratory and personal cleanliness and care concerning infected materials and chemical burns
-Quality assurance and disposal of wastes
-Cleaning of equipment and glassware
-Maintenance and use of refrigerator, deep-freezer, incubators, ovens, water bath, autoclaves, centrifuges, anaerobic chambers, BOD incubators etc.
-Maintenance and knowledge of various components of microscopes and applications of various types of balances.
-Principles and use of colorimeter, spectrophotometer, ELISA reader, turbidimeters and auto-analyzer etc.
-Use and maintenance of balances
-Simple glass manipulation including the making of capillary tubes, Pasteur pipettes, glass sheet cutting.